cte in SQL

Exploring Common Table Expressions (CTEs): Benefits and Performance Comparison


In the realm of SQL, developers often encounter complex queries that require breaking down the problem into
smaller, more manageable parts. One powerful tool that can aid in achieving this is the Common Table Expression
(CTE). In this blog post, we will delve into what CTEs are, when to use them, and how they compare in
performance to other methods of data retrieval. By the end, you will have a clear understanding of when and how
to employ CTEs effectively.


Before we dive into the specifics of CTEs, let’s set up a hypothetical scenario. Imagine we have a database
table named “Employees” containing employee records, such as their names, departments, and salaries. Throughout
this post, we will be using this sample data to demonstrate CTE usage and its advantages.

Common Table Expressions (CTEs)

A Common Table Expression, as the name implies, is a temporary result set within an SQL query that can be
referenced multiple times in the same query. CTEs improve query readability and maintainability by breaking
complex queries into smaller, self-contained units. This enables developers to build on the intermediate results
without cluttering the main query.


WITH HighSalaryEmployees AS (
    SELECT Name, Salary
    FROM Employees
    WHERE Salary > 50000
SELECT Name, Salary
FROM HighSalaryEmployees
WHERE Department = 'IT'; 

Video Explainer

Performance Comparison – CTE vs. Subquery and Derived Tables vs. Temp Table

Now, let’s compare the performance of CTEs with other common methods for data retrieval:

1. CTE

As we’ve seen in the previous example, CTEs provide a concise and readable way to structure complex queries.
They are generally efficient, and most modern database engines optimize CTEs effectively.

2. Subquery and Derived Tables

Subqueries and derived tables are alternatives to CTEs. They involve creating intermediate result sets within
the main query itself. While these methods can be useful, they tend to make the query less readable, especially
when dealing with large datasets.

SELECT Name, Salary
FROM Employees
WHERE Salary > 50000 AND Department = 'IT';

3. Temp Table

Temp tables involve creating a temporary physical table to store intermediate results. While this approach can
be performant for large datasets, it requires additional resources and can be less efficient for smaller

    SELECT Name, Salary
    FROM Employees
    WHERE Salary > 50000

SELECT Name, Salary
FROM HighSalaryEmployees
WHERE Department = 'IT';


Each method of data retrieval comes with its trade-offs:

  • CTEs provide the best of both worlds: readability and performance.
  • Subqueries and derived tables might be suitable for simpler queries, but they can become unwieldy as the
    complexity increases.
  • Temp tables can be efficient for large datasets but introduce additional overhead and can be cumbersome for
    smaller tasks.

Tear Down

As with any SQL query or temporary table, it is essential to clean up after ourselves. Temporary tables, in
particular, should be explicitly dropped to release resources. CTEs, on the other hand, do not require such
cleanup since they are part of the query itself and are automatically discarded after execution.


Common Table Expressions (CTEs) offer a powerful and elegant way to break down complex SQL queries into
manageable chunks. They enhance code readability and maintainability while providing competitive performance
compared to alternative methods like subqueries and derived tables. When tackling intricate data retrieval
tasks, consider leveraging CTEs to make your SQL queries more expressive and efficient.








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